English Grammar

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Adjective Adjektiv Infinitive marker Infinitivsmerke
Adverb Adverb -ing participle Presens partisipp
Adverbial Adverbial Interrogative sentence Spørresetning
Antecedent Korrelat Intransitive verb Intransitivt verb
Anticipatory object Foreløpig object Inversion Omvendt ordstilling
Anticipatory subject Foreløpig subject Irregular verb Uregelmessig verb
Antonym Antonym (mots.bet.) Lexical words Innholdsord
Article Artikkel Main clause Hovedsetning
Attributive Attributiv Main verb Hovedverb
Auxiliary Hjelpeverb Modal auxiliary Modalt hjelpeverb
Case Kasus Morpheme Morfem
Clause Setning Morphology Morfologi
Clause element Setningsledd Negator Nektingsledd
Coherence Koherens Nominalized adjective Substantivert adjektiv
Collective noun Subst. /kollektiv bet. Non-restrictive relative clause Unødvendig relativsetning
Common noun Felles navn Notional subject Egentlig subjekt
Comparative Komparativ Noun Substantiv
Comparison Komparasjon Numeral Tallord
Complex sentence Helsetn. + leddsetn. Object complement Objectspredikativ
Compound noun Sammensatt substantiv Oblique object Preposisjonsobject
Concord Samsvar (subj. – verbal) Passive voice Passiv
Conditional clause Betingelsessetning Past participle Perfektum partisipp
Conjunct Bindeadverbial Personal pronoun Personlig pronomen
Connector Bindeord Phrase Frase
Co-ordinating conjunction Sideordnende konjunksjon Possessive pronoun Eiendomspronomen
Copular verb Uselvstending verb Pragmatics Pragmatikk
Countable Tellelig Prescriptive grammar Normativ grammatikk
Declarative sentence Fortellende setning Present tense Presens
Definite article Bestemt artikkel Proper noun Egennavn
Demonstrative pronoun Påpekende pronomen Recipient Mottaker (semantisk)
Descriptive grammar Deskriprive grammatikk Reflexive pronoun Refleksivt pronomen
Determiner Bestemmelsesord Restrictive relative clause Nødvendig relativ setning
Direct object Direkte object Speech act Talehandling
Do-insertion/ Do-periphrasis Omskrivning med to do Simple sentence Helsetning (uten leddsetning)
Empty it ’det’ som formelt subjekt Stative verb Statisk verb
Exclamation Utrop Subject Subjekt
False friends Lik form – ulik betydning Subject complement Subjektspredikativ
Function word Funksjonsord Subjunctive Konjunktiv
Gender Kjønn Subordinate clause Leddsetning
Genitive Genitiv Subordinating conjunction Underordnende konjunksj.
Head Kjerne (i en frase) Superlative Superlativ
Imperative Imperativ Synonym Synonym
Indefinite article Ubestemt artikkel Tag question Halespørsmål
Indefinite pronoun Ubestemt pronomen Tense Verbtid
Indirect object Indirekte objekt Uncountable utellelig

PRESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR

Normativ grammatikk

DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR

Deskriptive grammatikk

Rules about how language should be spoken or written – the ideal state. Advice on how to speak and write good English.Concerned with right or wrong – ways of saying things.Conservative in nature; does not welcome new ideas, but changes and develops. Description of how language is used in speech and writing by native speakers.Observes linguistic changes – does not try to stop them.

TERMINOLOGY

Phonology Lydlære
Phoneme Vowels and consonants (/b/, /e/, /d/, /i/)
Morphology Formlære
Morpheme The minimum unit of meaning:((bed) + (s),Prefix +Stem+ Suffix:

(un)+(friend)+(ly)

Syntax Setningslære
Semantics Betydningslære – sentences and words can have different meanings.
Pragmatics The nature and intention behind a speech act / rules that must be followed to achieve successful interpersonal communication: body language, intonation etc. You can say one thing and mean the opposite…

FUNCTION WORDS

Funksjonsord

Closed classes, occur frequently, grammatical words:

have little meaning, short and simple.

Determiners Indefinit article: (a-n) – bestemt artikkelDefinite article: (The) – ubestemt Possessive determiner: (your, my , our)
Personal Pronouns Subject: Object:
Singular 1. person – speaker2. person – spoken to3. person – spoken about IYouhe, she, it MeYouhim, her, it
Plural 1. person2. person

3. person

WeYouThey UsYouthem
Interrogative: (who, which, what) Possessive: (yours, mine, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs)

Relative: (who/whoever/which/that)

Indefinite relative pronouns: whoever, whomever, whatever

Reflexive: (myself, yourself, him- her- itself, our – your – themselves)

Reciprocal: (each other, one another)

Prepositions

about
above
across
after
against
around
at
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
by
down
during
except
for
from
in
inside
into
like
near
of
off
on
out
outside
over
since
through
throughout
till
to
toward
under
until
up
upon
with
without
according to
because of
by way of
in addition to
in front of
in place of
in regard to
in spite of
instead of
on account of
out of
Conjunctions FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So
Negator Not
Verbs Auxiliary: (have, be) She is goingModal auxiliary: (will, shall, may, might, can, could, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need ) used in conjunction with main verbs to express shades of time and mood, creates what are called verb phrases or verb strings: Next fall, I will have been studying for three years.

Modifiers

Basic Principle: Modifiers are like teenagers: they fall in love with whatever they’re next to. Make sure they’re next to something they ought to modify!

LEXICAL WORDS

Innholdsord

Open classes: new words can be coined, words that carry meaning, may be complex or compound.

Nouns Is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea Nouns can be in the subjective, possessive, and objective case. Count nouns: You can touch them (car, book. flower)

Mass nouns: Uncountable (water, air, energy)

Abstract nouns: Not tangible (you can’t touch them)( warmth, justice, grief, peace)

Collective nouns: are composed of more than one individual person or items (jury, team, class, committee, herd) can be singular or plural, depending on context.

Compound nouns: There are three forms of compound words:

Closed form: (firefly) melted together.

Open form: (post office) kept apart.

Hyphenated form: (daughter-in-law) notice the preposition – sometimes an article, (master-at-arms), or (six-year-old)

Verb Copular (linking verbs): often forms of the verb to be (å være) sometimes verbs related to the five senses (look, sound, smell, feel, taste) or reflect a state of being (appear, seem, become, grow, turn, prove, remain). Transitive: some verbs demand an object to complete their meaning: She gave money to the church. (buy …) What did you buy? Intransitive: do not require objects: (talk).

A verb can be both transitive and intransitive: «The monster collapsed the building by sitting on it.»

Adjectives Describe nouns, and appears usually between a determiner and a noun: a green apple They are words that describe or modify another person or thing in a sentence. The articles — a, an, and the — are adjectives (except when they are in front of nouns, then they are determiners or quantifiers: A tall professor, the six year old, a solid payment.
Adverbs Words that modify: a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)

an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)

another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)

Will often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function.

SENTENCE

A group of words containing a subject (the do-er or be-er) and predicative (the completer of the sentence).

Simple predicative contains only one verb: She screamed.

Combined predicative – two or more verbs: She screamed and kicked.

Complete predicate consists of the verb and all accompanying modifiers and other words that receive the action or complete its meaning.

A sentence:

Consists one or more clauses

One or more phrases

A complete unit of meaning

From capital letter to final stop.

Types of sentences Statement: declarative sentence: (facts and feelings): I would like you to leave. Question: interrogative sentence: Would you please leave? Command: imperative sentence: (Contains no subject) Get out!
Phrase A group of words which is part of a sentence and which usually add information.Any given phrase comprises (innebefatter) the – noun / preposition / adverb / verb or infinitive (obviously), and any associated modifiers:

Noun phrase: a boy in my class

Prepositional phrase: in the morning

Adverbial phrase: late last night

Verb phrase: may have gone

Infinitive phrase: the first man to the moon

Clause One or more phrases (setninger)Main clauseSubordinate clause (ledd setning)

SENTENCE ELEMENTS – AND HOW TO FIND THEM!

Syntactic analysis

The Verbal What is the act? We start finding the verb, or the verbs. There may also be a phrasal verb: He woke up at 7
The Subject The do-er or be-er: Ask who/what + the verbThe subject may be: A noun: The man loves his wife.

A proper noun: John loves his wife.

A pronoun: He loves his wife.

A noun + a relative clause: The man who is sitting between aunt Sarha and your mother loves his wife.

A noun + complementation (utfyllinger): The man on the corner loves his wife.

An infinitive clause: To roll stones can be dangerous.

An –ing clause: Riding two horses at the same time is difficult.

A sentence may have two subjects joined by coordination: The man on the corner and his son want to speak with you.

The Object Direct object: ask the subject + the verb + who/what Proper noun: I know John Noun: I know the man

Pronoun: I know him

Noun + relative clause: I know the man who is sitting between Sarah and your mother

Noun + complementation: I know the man on the corner

Infinitive clause: I hate to get up early

-ing clause: I don’t like being responsible.

Several objects coordinated: I hate ice-cream, chocolate and chewing gum.

Indirect objects, resemble direct objects in form:

Ask to/for whom

Noun, proper noun, pronoun: She gave John / the man / him money

Noun + relative clause: She gave the boy who fell off his bike a helping hand.

Oblique object: Sometimes the direct object in a sentence with both direct and indirect objects is realized as a prepositional phrase:

She gave money to the man. And sometimes the oblique object cannot be rephrased as direct object:

Can you post this letter for me? You cannot say: can you post me this letter?

The Predicative Subject Predicative: describes the subject, there is identity between the subject and the subject predicative:Noun: John is a boy (an extremely nice) Proper noun: His name is Max.

Adjective: She became famous.

Object Predicative: has the same relationship as above:

They call him Max.

They made her famous.

The Adverbial Are often said to provide the answers to questions such as how, where, when, why. The three most common are: Adverbial of time: He left …

  • – at seven
  • – every day
  • -after the shower
  • -now
  • -before anyone could stop him
  • Adverbial of place: The bus stop …

  • – in London
  • – just around the corner
  • – at home
  • -over there
  • Adverbial of manner:

    He searched the room carefully

    She sings beautifully

    He went slowly up the stairs

    We gradually got used to it

      Singular Plural
    Simple tenses
    Indicate that an action is present, past or future relative to the speaker or writer.
    PresentStem / 3rd person he/she/it + s
    1st person I walk/draw we walk/draw
    2nd person you walk/draw you walk/draw
    3rd person he/she/it
    walks/draws
    they walk/draw
    Past-ed
    1st person I walked/drew we walked/drew
    2nd person you walked/drew you walked/drew
    3rd person he/she/it
    walked/drew
    they walked/drew
    Futurewill /shall
    1st person I will walk/draw we will walk/draw
    2nd person you will walk/draw you will walk/draw
    3rd person he/she/it will
    walk/draw
    they will walk/draw
    Perfect tenses
    Indicate that an action was or will be completed before another time or action.
    Present perfectHave -ed/ (strong verbs)
    1st person I have walked/drawn we have walked/drawn
    2nd person you have walked/drawn you have walked/drawn
    3rd person he/she/it has
    walked/drawn
    they have walked/drawn
    Past perfectHad -ed/ or (look out for strong verbs)
    1st person I had walked/drawn we had walked/drawn
    2nd person you had walked/drawn you had walked/drawn
    3rd person he/she/it had
    walked/drawn
    they had walked/drawn
    Future perfectWill have
    1st person I will have walked/drawn we will have walked/drawn
    2nd person you will have walked/drawn you will have walked/drawn
    3rd person he/she/it will have
    walked/drawn
    they will have walked/drawn
    Progressive tenses
    Indicate continuing action.
    Present progressiveAm/are/is -ing
    1st person I am walking/drawing we are walking/drawing
    2nd person you are walking/drawing you are walking/drawing
    3rd person he/she/it is
    walking/drawing
    they are walking/drawing
    Past progressiveWas -ing
    1st person I was walking/drawing we were walking/drawing
    2nd person you were walking/drawing you were walking/drawing
    3rd person he/she/it was
    walking/drawing
    they were walking/drawing
    Future progressiveWill – ing
    1st person I will be walking/drawing we will be walking/drawing
    2nd person you will be walking/drawing you will be walking/drawing
    3rd person he/she/it will be
    walking/drawing
    they will be walking/drawing
    Present perfect progressiveHave been -ing
    1st person I have been
    walking/drawing
    we have been
    walking/drawing
    2nd person you have been
    walking/drawing
    you have been
    walking/drawing
    3rd person he/she/it has been
    walking/drawing
    they have been
    walking/drawing
    Past perfect progressiveHad been -ing
    1st person I had been
    walking/drawing
    we had been
    walking/drawing
    2nd person you had been
    walking/drawing
    you had been
    walking/drawing
    3rd person he/she/it had been
    walking/drawing
    they had been
    walking/drawing
    Future perfect progressiveWill been -ing
    1st person I will have been
    walking/drawing
    we will have been
    walking/drawing
    2nd person you will have been
    walking/drawing
    you will have been
    walking/drawing
    3rd person he/she/it will have been
    walking/drawing
    they will have been
    walking/drawing

    Entry filed under: Engelsk.

    Globalis Phonology

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