Phonology

november 4, 2007 at 12:06 am Legg igjen en kommentar

Contents on this page are a mixture of jewels from different sources. Some of them from lectures, some from web pages (are linked), and some from a book that was brought to me by one of my very best friends, she came across this treasure at a flee market!

The book: The art of speech is written by H. W. Traynor. The first edition is from 1947, second 1951, and the third – 1957. It was reprinted in 1959, by: Whitcombe & Tombs. It is so well written, and has a touch of teaching that you don’t find in modern phonetic literature – or lectures. Mr. Traynor does not only teach us the proper pronunciations, but he also give some handy advices on how to achieve your phonetic goals by practicing proper behavior . Below you will, find some advice on how to avoid criticism from teachers!

A SELF-CORRECTION CHART

(page 88, The Art of Speech):

Deportment

Your bearing. The carriage of the body. How you «hold» yourself.

Stand erect – head up. Be easy and natural. Look straight at the person addressed. If reading, hold book at chin level.

Articulation

Distinct speech, especially with regard to clear consonants.

Form the words strongly on the lips and throw the sound forward. Beware of «mouthing» your words.

Enunciation

Pure vowels, which constitute the melody of speech.

Try to cultivate a pleasant tone, by freeing the voice from harshness or shrillness.

Pronunciation

The correct sounding of words, with special reference to accent, e.g. exquisite (not ex’quisite)

Listen carefully to people of good education and speech. Consult a good dictionary, e.g. (I) Oxford, (2) A pronouncing Dictionary (Prof. D. Jones)

Expression

The art of conveying fully the meaning of what is being read or said.

Understand what you are saying. Use your imagination and try to paint a picture with words. Be sincere and natural.

Fluency

Smooth and easy flow of language.

Have good control over your breath supply. When reading, look ahead, i.e. keep the eyes ahead of the voice. Never sacrifice accuracy for speed.

 

Speek distinctly!

Never sacrifice accuracy for speed. If you do, you have lost control and your speech is meaningless.

To sum up:

The human voice is an instrument capable of producing the finest music. By a careful study of intonation and range, empahsis, pause, climax and speed, we may train the voice to express the finest shades of meaning. To this stydy we must add the need for cultivating a full round tone – devoid of harshness and shrillness.

Much can be done by making a habit of reading aloud, and by PRACTICE, PRACTICE, and still more PRACTICE!

H. W. Trainor

The phonetic signs below are all linked back to it’s origin:

Stirling University’s on-line phonologi course.

Check out their site, it’s well spent time!

 

cutecolorsfeecupani.gifConsonants:

Notice that these consonants have their normal value:

as in judge

as in sing

as in genre, measure, leisure, seizure

as in you, yes

as in this, that, thy

as in thick, thin, think, thirst

as in she, shop, sheep

a glottal stop, as in wa’er (water), mar’in (margin)

not found in RP, but in some varieties of Scottish English

as in church, chair, cheap, Charles

(Voiceless W)

 

cutecolorsfeecupani.gifVowels (short):

bit

box

put, book,

bat, hat, cap,

but

set, fell

The schwa, week vowel, as in another, brother, the

cutecolorsfeecupani.gifVowels (long):

as in beat, see

bought, caught, talk

balloon, blue, spoon
pass, laugh

bird, word

 

 

cutecolorsfeecupani.gifDiphthongs:

as in bait

as in buy

as in boy

as in go

as in cow

as in fear, beer

as in care, bear

as in sure, pure

cutecolorsfeecupani.gif Triphthongs:

 Kilde: http://jeanberg.stud.hive.no/Engelsk/Phonetics.htm

Entry filed under: Engelsk.

English Grammar Religions og livssynsdidaktikk – kap. 4

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